Peran Penting Hutan Mangrove Di Desa Pengudang, Kecamatan Teluk Sebong

Hutan mangrove adalah ekosistem hutan daerah pantai yang terdiri dari kelompok pepohonan yang bisa hidup dalam lingkungan berkadar garam tinggi. Salah satu ciri tanaman mangrove memiliki akar yang menyembul ke permukaan. Penampakan mangrove seperti hamparan semak belukar yang memisahkan daratan dengan laut.

Gusti Gilang Aryamukti

Menurut Saenger (1981) dalam Anwar, dkk (1984) salah satu fungsi ekosistem mangrove adalah sebagai Fungsi biologi, yaitu sebagai dearah pasca larva dan yuwana jenis jenis ikan tertentu dan menjadi habitat alami berbagai jenis biota dengan produktivitas yang tinggi, serta bersarangnya burung-burung besar.

Ekosistem mangrove merupakan ekosistem peralihan antara darat dan laut yang dikenal memiliki peran dan fungsi sangat besar. Secara ekologis mangrove memiliki fungsi yang sangat penting dalam memainkan peranan sebagai mata rantai makanan di suatu perairan, yang dapat menumpang kehidupan berbagai jenis ikan, udang dan moluska.

Perlu diketahui bahwa hutan mangrove tidak hanya melengkapi pangan bagi biota aquatik saja, akan tetapi juga dapat menciptakan suasana iklim yang kondusif bagi kehidupan biota aquatik, serta memiliki kontribusi terhadap keseimbangan siklus biologi di suatu perairan.

Kekhasan tipe perakaran beberapa jenis tumbuhan mangrove seperti Rhizophora sp., Avicennia sp. dan Sonneratia sp. Dan kondisi lantai hutan, kubangan serta aluralur yang saling berhubungan merupakan perlidungan bagi larva berbagai biota laut.

Kondisi seperti ini juga sangat penting dalam menyediakan tempat untuk bertelur, pemijahan dan pembesarkan serta tempat mencari makan berbagai macam ikan dan udang kecil, karena suplai makanannya tersedia dan terlindung dari ikan pemangsa. Ekosistem mangrove juga berperan sebagai habitat bagi jenis-jenis ikan, kepiting dan kerang-kerangan yang mempunyai nilai ekonomi tinggi.

Dengan karakteristik yang unik, hutan bakau di desa pengudang  memegang beberapa fungsi penting. Pertama, hutan bakau berfungsi untuk mencegah abrasi dan instrusi air laut di pesisir pantai. Hutan bakau juga berperan sebagai habitat berbagai organisme pantai, seperti alga, udang dan kepiting. Telah diketahui bahwa perairan di sekitar hutan mangrove memiliki produktivitas yang tinggi karena serasah mangrove yang diekspor ke perairan di sekitarnya, bahkan memiliki nilai yang lebih tinggi dibanding ekosistem lainnya.

Selain itu hutan bakau juga dapat difungsikan sebagai penyedia sumber daya hayati yang memiliki nilai ekonomis seperti kayu bakau. Hutan bakau sebagai tempat tumbuhnya tanaman bakau dapat menjadi penyerap karbon dioksida untuk mengurangi gas rumah kaca. Terakhir, ekosistem hutan bakau mampu menjadi objek wisata yang menguntungkan warga sekitar.

Dengan menyadari peran penting yang dimiliki oleh hutan bakau, maka diperlukan usaha untuk mencegah terjadinya kerusakan lebih lanjut pada ekosistem tersebut. Peraturan yang ketat untuk melindungi hutan bakau dari pembangunan adalah salah satu upaya yang dapat dilakukan.

Selain itu, pemanfaatan wilayah hutan bakau di desa pengudang juga sebagai area wisata seperti yang ada, juga dapat dilakukan. Upaya ini selain dapat melindungi kelestarian hutan bakau juga dapat meningkatkan memperkenalkan pentingnya keberadaan hutan bakau kepada masyarakat.


(Gusti Gilang Aryamukti)
NIM 190254241012

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